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Various Plastics Welding Methods In Automobile Industry
Jan 24, 2018

The welding of plastics is limited to the welding of thermoplastics, since only thermoplastics can melt or soften when heated, and thermosetting plastics cannot soften and remelting when heated.

The hot air welding is similar to the metal oxygen acetylene welding gas, except the latter uses the hot air to heat the former flame. Hot gas welding process, from the torch in the hot gas flow (typical temperature is 200~300℃, flow up to 15~60l/min) at the same time to the filler rod and welding parts heating, when the material surface softening to a viscous state, the filler bar continuous pressure into the weld. The filler bar material is exactly the same as the base material, usually round (about 3mm in diameter), and is welded with multiple solder joints when welding thick plates.

At present, the 100kg plastic material of modern automobiles replaces the traditional metal materials which need 200~300kg, and the weight-loss effect is very outstanding, which is of great significance for saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission. such as automotive plastic intake manifold replacement metal can reduce the quality of 40%~60%, and surface light flow resistance is small, can improve engine performance, and in improving combustion efficiency, reduce fuel consumption, vibration and noise reduction have played a certain role. According to statistics, automotive plastic varieties have reached dozens of, the average amount of plastic per car has accounted for the weight of the car 5%~10%, with the development of automotive lightweight requirements and the expansion of automotive plastics technology applications, automotive plastic bicycle consumption will be further increased in the future.

The connection of plastics is the key link of its wide application. Plastics can be connected by mechanical fastening, bonding or welding. Tight connection speed, suitable for all plastics, but high cost, will produce stress concentration, can not form a sealed joint or get the proper performance. Bonding can obtain excellent performance and quality joints, but difficult to operate, the need to carefully carry out joints and surface preparation, and slow, not suitable for mass production. The welding economy, simple, fast and reliable, can form the static strength close to the base material of the joint, and therefore suitable for mass production, in the automotive industry has been more and more extensive applications. Plastic welding technology has become a measure of automotive production technology and new materials development level of one of the signs.

Automotive plastics are divided into two types: one is thermosetting plastic, they can withstand the ordinary drying operation; one is thermoplastic, which has the advantages of easy processing and fast. In the automotive plastics, the top 7 plastic material varieties and accounted for roughly: polypropylene 21%, polyurethane 19. 6%, polyvinyl chloride 12. 2%, thermosetting composite material 10. 4%, abs8%, nylon 7. 8%, polyethylene 6%.

A disadvantage of a round filler bar is that the air bubbles are easily trapped in the weld during the multi-weld process, resulting in a decrease in strength, which can be solved by using triangular cross-section welding rods. The typical materials available for hot air welding include polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, polypropylene, plexiglass, polycarbonate, POM, polystyrene, nylon, ABS, etc. The main advantage of hot gas welding is adaptability (flexibility), which can be used to process large and complex parts with simple portable equipment. Hot-air welding is suitable for irregular structure, but it is slow, welding quality depends largely on the operator's skill, so it is rarely used in mass production, but it is suitable for repair operation.